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破解英语新题型技巧

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发表于 2018-10-29 20:22:57 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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考研新题型并不像大家所说的那样难于登天,掌握了相应的解题规律后,是在短时间内最有可能提分的一个专项。以往年考研英语新题型真题为例,为大家整理考研英语新题型的解题思路,希望对大家有所帮助。

  ►新题型的三种题型的展示方式

  新题型一共有三种题型,分别是:

  题型一:

  排序题:7,8个选项排序,已给2,3段的段落位置。

  题型二:

  选择搭配题:5空,在6,7个选项里以补充完整5空。所谓的七选五

  题型三:

  小标题或概括句:从6,7个选项中选出最恰当的5个标题填入文中空白处。

  ►新题型解题着重点

  重点说一些前两类题型——七选五、排序。这两类题型比小标题稍难,也是最有概率考的。在这不是压题,是用之前的数据说话。再说这两类题之前,我们很有必要来了解这篇文章是怎么来的。大家知道,一篇考研阅读的文章不能是跟散文一样,想到哪说到哪,一定是很有逻辑性,一环扣一环的。就算是散文也是“形散神不散”。

  不能是这样:A:你吃饭了么?

  B:我考试得了100分,你考得怎么样?

  A:我周末去公园玩了。

  这样的句子就是毫无逻辑可言的,当然也不会出现在文章中。那么一篇文章怎么能做到逻辑缜密、严丝合缝呢!最重要的是通过两个“连接装置” :

  1、逻辑连词,and but so or for这类的,这个是大的逻辑关系词

  2、代词。

  但是有的同学说了,代词怎么能有逻辑关系呢?怎么能连接句子呢?我说一个最简单的例子:XX明星长得很漂亮,我很喜欢她。这两个之间没有逻辑连词,但是句子仍然显得很有逻辑性,很严密。这是因为有了代词,“她”这个代词就把两个没关系的句子连接起来了。这样一解释我们就顿悟了,原来我们寻找的“同义复现”背后的原理就是寻找文章的代词,原来原理竟是如此的简单。

  既然知道了“连接装置”的存在,我们就要进一步的想一下文章的脉络了。一篇文章挖了5个空,让我们从7个备选答案中选出正确的。那一定是用逻辑连词(逻辑关系)或者代词来把两个段落连接起来。这样我们做题的时候就抓住了重点,就是“连接装置”。用链接装置来做题。举个例子:

  2010年的6选5排序,这个题在10年的抽样调查中,得分率仅为2分。因为ABCDE和EABCD是完全不同的,如果ABCDE是正确答案,那么EABCD就是0分,一招出错满盘皆输。具体来说,第一题是让我们填首段,这个是当年感觉最简单的一道题。

  [A]The first and more important is the consumer’s growing…

  [B] Retail sales of food and drink in Europe’s largest markets…

  [C] Will such variations bring about a change in the overall structure…

  [D] All in all, this clearly seems to be a market in…

  [F] For example, wholesale food and drink sales…

  [G] However, none of these requirements should deter…

  在这六个选项中,ADFG是有逻辑连词,C是代词。其逻辑关系一定是前边阐述了一个观点或者事情,然后后边才能接这些连接装置。所以B很容易就选出来了。在童鞋们复习考研新题型的时候,要多关注怎么用“连接装置”来解题,看辅导书的解析的时候也应该看看他的解析是否用到了逻辑关系,是否用到了关键词。

  3、在新题型中有几个除了连接装置的词,也要足够引起我们的注意。

  (1)数字:我们对一些数字要敏感的,作者行文可能是通过时间顺序,或者是按某种特定的顺序。最典型的就是2006年的“美国博彩业的兴旺”全篇行文是按主人公越赌越大,所赌的钱数也是递增的关系。这样我们的第一题的C就轻松解出来了,根本不用知道他在说什么。我们要对数字敏感,遇到白给分的题千万要拿住。

  (2)引号&专有名词:如果你引入一个新的概念或者一个新的专有名词,那么你要先介绍他,这就不免在一个段落或连续的几个段落多次出现这个专有名词。如2008年的最后一题。空前的最后一句,The student who wrote “The A &P as a State of Mind” wisely dropped a paragraph that questioned whether Sammy displays chauvinistic attitudes toward women. (45)这里出现了一个专有名词The A &P不管他是缩写还是什么意思,这个是我们不知道的东西,后面一定会还要提到他。那么看选项中EF有提到The A &P

  E:Although this is an interesting issue, it has…lead up to the A &P “policy” he enforces.

  F:In the final paragraph about the significance of the setting in “A &P”…

  如果你还记得上边说的两大“连接装置”那你看到E选项,会是多么激动的事情啊!既有逻辑连词Although,又有代词this,如果让我蒙我会毫不犹豫的蒙E。当然你也可以通过语义的分析来解这道题。就F来说,很突兀的一句话,和上文不搭调,原因就在于它没有连接装置。

  ►新题型解题技巧

  对于新题型的答题策略应该是注重段落篇章的逻辑关联和结构,下面教大家两个招式来瓦解新题型,快速夺取这个模块的分数。

  1、识别上下关联词

  ♦真题回放:(2013年真题)

  Today, the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates, rather than on topics with external impact. Analyses reveal that thenumberof papers including thekeywords“environmental changed” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004. (43)

  [B] However, thenumbersare still small: in 2010,about 1,600 of the 100,000 social-sciences papers published globally included one of theseKeywords.

  解析:43题是本段最后一句,由此和它关联最紧密的是它的上一句。上句中nalyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords “environmental changed” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004.讲的核心词是number,并且还出现了个新词汇“keywords”,而选项B中也出现了number和keywords,和前句构成了上下关联,故而选之。

  2、捆绑排序

  ♦真题回放:(2011年真题)

  [A]No disciplines have seized on professionalism with as much enthusiasm as the humanities. You can, Mr. Menand points out, become a lawyer in three years and a medical doctor in four. But the regular time it takes to get a doctoral degree in the humanities is nine years.Not surprisingly, up to half of all doctoral students in English drop out before getting their degrees.

  [C]Equally unsurprisingly, only about half end up :with professorships forwhich they entered graduate school. There are simply too few posts. This is partly because universities continue to produce ever more PhDs.

  解析:A选项的最后提到了Not surprisingly,而C选项的开头也提到了Equally unsurprisingly,这表明这两段有关联,是对同一话题的探讨,因而,这两个可以捆绑在一起排序。

  ♦真题回放:(2014年真题)

  [B]In another case, American archaeologists Rene Million and George Cowgill spent years systematically mapping the entire city of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico near what is now Mexico City. At its peak around AD 600, this city was one of the largest human settlements in the world. The researchers mapped not only the city’s vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but also hundreds of simpler apartment complexes where common people lived.

  [D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entire landscapes.In one case,many researchers working around the ancient Maya city of Copan, Honduras, have located hundreds of small rural villages and individual dwellings by using aerial photographs and by making surveys on foot. The resulting settlement maps show how the distribution and density of the rural population around the city changeddramatically between AD 500 and 850, when Copan collapsed.

  解析:我们从B段的开头看到In another case,那么,肯定会出现另一个one case,而在D段我们就发现了In one case,所以BD形成了捆绑,并且D前B后,这样排序时,我们就可以一下子填两个连着的空格了。

  3、复现

  所谓的复现指的是相关解题信息的重复出现。复现涉及到原词复现,同义、近义词复现以及反义复现等。掌握这种解题方法,能够帮助我们迅速解题。

  ♦真题回放:(2010年真题)

  [B]①Retail sales of food and drink in Europe’s largest markets are at a standstill, leaving European grocery retailers hungry for opportunities to grow. ②Most leading retailers have already tried e-commerce, with limit success, and expansion abroad. ③But almost all have ignored the big, profitable opportunity in their own backyard:the wholesale food and drink trade, which appears to be just the kind of market retailers need.

  [F] ①For example, wholesale food and drink sales come to $268 billion in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom in 2000-more than 40 percent of retail sales. ②Moreover, average overall margins are higher in wholesale than in retail; wholesale demand from the food service sector is growing quickly as more Europeans eat out more often; and changes in the competitive dynamics of this fragmented industry are at last making it feasible for wholesalers to consolidate.

  【分析】 [F]选项中首句中的wholesale food and drink和[B]选项中最后一句话的the wholesale food and drink形成原词复现。

  ♦真题回放:(2012年真题)

  ①Television is a one-way tap flowing into our homes. ②The hardest task that television asks of anyone is to turn the power off after he has turned it on. ③ (45)

  [G]The networked computer offers the first chance in 50 years to reverse the flow, to encourage thoughtful downloading and, even more importantly, meaningful uploading.

  【分析】 [G] 选项中the flow与45题前flowing形成同根词复现。

  4、代词指代

  代词常指代前文中出现过的名词,当某个选项句首或句尾出现代词时,要格外敏感,通过找指代,可以迅速的把两个选项连在一起。

  ♦真题回放:(2010年真题)

  [D] ①All in all, this clearly seems to be a market in which big retailers could profitably apply their gigantic scale, existing infrastructure, and proven skills in the management of product ranges, logistics, and marketing intelligence. ②Retailers that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe may well expect to rake in substantial profits there by. ③At least, that is how it looks as a whole. ④Closer inspection reveals import differences among the biggest national markets, especially in their customer segments and wholesale structures, as well as the competitive dynamics of individual food and drink categories. ⑤Big retailers must understand these differences before they can identify the segments of European wholesaling in which particular abilities might unseat smaller but entrenched competitors. ⑥New skills and unfamiliar business models are needed too.

  [G] However, none of these requirements should deter large retails and even some large good producers and existing wholesalers from trying their hand, for those that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe stand to reap considerable gains.

  【分析】2010年真题的新题型考查的是排序题。 [G] 选项的句首的these requirements与[D]选项最后一句are needed too 形成照应的关系。

  ♦真题回放:(2012年真题)

  ①For all the possibilities of our new culture machines, most people are still stuck in download mode. ②Even after the advent of widespread social media, a pyramid of production remains, with a small number of people uploading material, a slightly larger group commenting on or modifying that content, and a huge percentage remaining content to just consume. ③(44)

  [F] One reason for the persistence of this pyramid of production is that for the past half-century, much of the world's media culture has been defined by a single medium - television - and television is defined by downloading.

  【分析】 2012年真题的新题型考查的是七选五。[F] 选项首句出现了this pyramid of production. “this”这个明显的指示代词,说明前面会出现pyramid of production。44题前文中则出现了a pyramid of production。此时形成一种明显的照应关系。

  ♦真题回放:(2012年真题)

  ①All animals download, but only a few upload. ②Beavers build dams and birds make nests. ③Yet for the most part, the animal kingdom moves through the world downloading. ④Humans are unique in their capacity to not only make tools but then turn around and use them to create superfluous material goods --- paintings, sculpture and architecture --- and superfluous experiences --- music, literature, religion and philosophy. ⑤(43)[A] Of course, it is precisely these superfluous things that define human culture and ultimately what it is to be human. Downloading and consuming culture requires great skills, but failing to move beyond downloading is to strip oneself of a defining constituent of humanity.

  【分析】 [A]选项句首出现了 these superfluous things。these这个明显的指示代词前,一定会出现superfluous相关的表达。在43空前出现了superfluous material goods和superfluous experiences,这就形式照应的关系。

  新题型是个技巧性很强的专项,建议大家能掌握些重要的解题技巧,快速得分。

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